Following the abolishment of slavery in the 1860's, black people remained to be treated differently throughout the 20th century. Schools, transportation and restaurants were segregated, ghettos were formed in the northern cities and groups such as the Klu Klux Klan harassed and murdered blacks. This era of segregation separated blacks from whites socially, politically, and economically consequently, beating down a race. In 1954, the Supreme Court ruled to desegregate schools and later parks, public housing, air terminals, buses etc. The Civil Rights Bill was first proposed by President Lyndon B. Johnson an American President in support of black peoples rights. Also, the issuing of the Voting Rights Act, which outlawed literacy tests for African Americans was too, driven by the president. The 1960's was a time of counterculture where, driven by hope given by John F. Kennedy, black activists such as Rosa Parks, Muhammad Ali, Malcolm X, Martin Luther King, Race Riots and the Black Panther Party drew attention to the need for change and the end of segregation. In the year 1900, only one of the worlds countries permitted women the right to vote. By 1975 however, 129 countries had too, permitted this right for women. However, women were not treated equally in the work force which is an ongoing conflict to this day. Figureheads such as Margaret Thatcher, the first woman elected head of state in Europe and Indira Gandhi, the first Female president in India helped equalize women's rights as their influence was not ignored. By the late 1960's almost all women had access to birth control. This meant that women could have a say in when they wanted to have children, therefore allowing them to pursue their careers and further bring them closer in equality to men. They gained the right of choice. After gaining the right to vote, the issue of equal pay arose and because women still didn't receive the same level of pay as men did, the solution resulted in more women entering into politics.
What advancements have been made in the United States in terms of the rights for women and African Americans since the 1960's?
Outline the steps that brought about the end of the system of apartheid in South Africa in the 1990s?
In the year 1948, an all-white National Party gained control over South Africa with the main agenda of implementing Apartheid. This, essentially involving the segregation of black people and the taking away of their rights. From this, a resistance was formed, prominently driven by the African National Congress lead by Nelson Mandela who subsequently, was jailed for life in 1964 until the year 1990 when Apartheid was ended. In 1952, the Apartheid System was condemned by the United Nations and every year, was opposed by the General Assembly. Later, in 1961, many from the British Commonwealth wanted to expel the country of South Africa yet SA chose to withdraw themselves. In 1962, the UN attempted to place economic sanctions of South Africa yet numerous leading industrial Nations refused to participate for the fear of a loss of business. During the time of Apartheid, much civil disobedience, boycotts, strikes and violent measures took place in the black population's struggle for human rights. In 1976, black students protested for the right to no longer be educated in Afrikaans. Massacres such as that which occurred in Soweto resulted in as many as 575 deaths. During the 1980's, Apartheid was declared as a crime against humanity. In 1978, reforms were made and blacks were given certain rights back. The resistance movement that had been taking place, had begun calling for a revolution. Trade Unions had been given the right to begin protesting Apartheid and the economy of South Africa imploded. The Dutch Reformed Church had begun to oppose Apartheid and as the whites living in South Africa were prominently of Dutch decent, they followed the belief of the church. In 1994, four years following Mandela's release from prison, and one year after his winning of a Nobel Peace Prize, a democratic election was held allowing all citizens of SA to vote and Mandela became the first ever Black President in the region.
Gandhi's creation of the Indian Congress Party was the first of his steps which led to the self-determination of India from Great Britain's rule. He believed that both Hindus and Muslims could, together share an independent India leading his party with pacifism. The Salt March of 1930, was a protest led by Gandhi as a direct action campaign of tax resistance against the British salt monopoly in colonial India (Wikipedia, 2013). This non-violent protest entailed Gandhi and his followers rejection to purchase salt from the British monopoly but rather walk 240 miles which they did, to attain salt from the ocean. Of course, Gandhi was not able to support all of India, but managed to influence others to rise up against British rule, marking the march as the trigger of the Civil Disobedience Movement in India. This Salt March resulted in a widespread of support for independence throughout India.